Vol. 1, Issue 1, January 2009

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Adolescent violence against parents. Is it a consequence of gender inequality? Adolescent violence against parents. Is it a consequence of gender inequality?

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Date added: 01/01/2009
Date modified: 05/30/2014
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Izaskun IbabeJoana Jaurequizar; and Óscar Díaz

pp. 3-24


Abstract: The aim of the present study was to explore the psychosocial profile of juveniles reported for violent behaviours against their parents, as well as the extent to which the phenomenon of violence against parents (VAP) can be explained by the hypothesis of the bi-directionality of intra-family violence. For this purpose we selected a sample of 103 juveniles classified in three groups –(a) VAP offences, (b) VAP offences and other types of offence, and (c) other offences. In total we analyzed 413 files from the office of the Public Prosecutor for Juveniles in Bilbao (Basque Country, northern Spain). We extracted personal, family context and judicial variables for the juveniles. The results suggest the existence of a specific profile of juveniles reported for VAP, and also show that through the hypothesis of the bi-directionality of intra-family violence it is possible to explain one-third of the cases analyzed.


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Perceived neighborhood social disorder and attitudes toward domestic violence against women among latin-american immigrants Perceived neighborhood social disorder and attitudes toward domestic violence against women among latin-american immigrants

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Date added: 01/01/2009
Date modified: 09/26/2013
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Enrique GraciaJuan HerreroMarisol Lila; and Asur Fuente

pp. 25-43


Abstract: In the present study we explore the relationship between perceived neighbourhood social disorder (perceived crime and insecurity in residential areas) and attitudes toward domestic violence against women in Latin-American population inSpain (N =350). Perceived severity of incidents of domestic violence, its acceptability, victim-blaming attitudes and knowing victims of domestic violence are analyzed among immigrant population. Results show that the perception of neighbourhood social disorder is associated with a lower perceived severity of incidents of domestic violence, with greater acceptability of violence, and higher degree of victim-blaming. Also, those residents of disorder neighbourhoods also know more victims of domestic violence. These results suggest the social characteristics in residential areas, such as disorder and deprivation, configure an impoverished social context that might favour attitudes that condone domestic violence against women.


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Aggressive symbolic model identification in 13 year-old youths Aggressive symbolic model identification in 13 year-old youths

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Date added: 01/01/2009
Date modified: 09/26/2013
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Miguel ClementePablo Espinosa; and Miguel Ángel Vidal

pp. 45-68


Abstract: Although a great amount of research has been carried out about the effects of media on the audience, few studies deal with the process that determines why the viewers identify with a specific symbolic model instead of choosing any other. In this descriptive study we try to highlight similarity identification, focusing on aggressive model identification. A sample of 203 participants, both male and female, aged 13, and with a high socioeconomic level viewed different films sequences. They were asked to answer to a questionnaire both before and after watching the clip. This questionnaire included an adjective list about the traits that best defined themselves, their favorite characters, and characters they didn’t like. Results show a clear correspondence between the participants’ self-perceived traits and those perceived for the main characters in the film. Self-perceived traits were opposed to those perceived in the main characters opponents.


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Fear of crime: Methodological considerations and results from a biannual survey in the city of Oporto Fear of crime: Methodological considerations and results from a biannual survey in the city of Oporto

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Date added: 01/01/2009
Date modified: 09/26/2013
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Carla Machado and Celina Manita

pages 69-99


Abstract: This article presents the main results of a biannual inquiry on fear of crime in the city of Oporto (Portugal). Given the ongoing controversy on fear of crime measurement, we developed an instrument that: (a) differentiates between fear, risk and perceived seriousness of crime, (b) includes multiple levels of measurement, both general and specific, and (c) provides multiple measures of fear. Data were also collected on contextual clues that increase judgments of risk, defensive measures adopted by subjects and fear narratives. This instrument was first applied in 1997, to a sample of 467 subjects and again in 1999, to a sample of 500 subjects. Both studies evidence a high level of fear from crime in the population of Oporto, accompanied by a global perception of raising crime rates. Consistent with these high fear results, subjects resort to several defensive measures, mostly of an avoiding nature. Women and lower class subjects tend to report higher fear levels. Despite these global findings, fear levels (both general and between age groups) vary substantially according to the different measures used, providing a more complex analysis of the pattern of results usually found in fear of crime research.


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Discerning truth from deception: The sincere witness profile Discerning truth from deception: The sincere witness profile

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Date added: 01/01/2009
Date modified: 09/26/2013
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Luca BensiElisa GambettiRaffaella Nori; and Fiorella Giusberti

pp. 101-121


Abstract: During the last twenty years, we have assisted to a growing interest in the detection of verbal cues under deception. In this context, we focused our attention on the truth vs. deception topic in adults. In particular, we were interested in discrepant findings concerning some verbal indicators. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether different experimental designs may yield different results regarding the presence or absence of CBCA criteria. Forty participants were shown a video of a robbery and were asked to give a truthful and a deceitful statement of the criminal event. The participants’ performances were recorded in order to analyze content of the reports. Results showed more changes in verbal behaviour under within-subjects design compared to between-subjects one, though the presence/absence of some criteria was the same across the two statistical procedures. The different results yielded by between- and within-subjects analyses can provide some hints as regards the discrepancy in deception literature on verbal cues. Implications for applied settings are discussed.


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Social perception of violence against women: Individual and psychosocial characteristics of victims and abusers Social perception of violence against women: Individual and psychosocial characteristics of victims and abusers

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Francisca Expósito and María del Carmen Herrera

pages 123-145


Abstract: Violence against women in close relationships is one of the most worrying and controversial situations in modern society. The main goal of this study was to identify the social perception that people generally have of gender violence in order to obtain profiles of both men who resort to violence against their partners and women who are victims of abuse, identifying both individual (e.g. self-esteem) and social (power in relationship) characteristics related to gender violence. Using a questionnaire (designed between groups), 268 participants were asked to estimate the probability of men (Batterers vs. Non-batterers) and women (Victims vs. Non-victims) displaying certain behaviours, beliefs or attitudes. The results revealed the existence of clear social profiles of both aggressors and victims, comprising both individual and psychosocial characteristics. These profiles contained aspects that coincide with the roles traditionally associated with men and women, thus highlighting inequality between both sexes, and which seems to be one of the main causes of gender violence.


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