Vol. 1, Issue 2, July 2009

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A social desirability scale for the MMPI-2. Which of the two: Wiggins (WSD) or Edwards (ESD)? A social desirability scale for the MMPI-2. Which of the two: Wiggins (WSD) or Edwards (ESD)?

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Date added: 07/01/2009
Date modified: 09/26/2013
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Fernando JiménezGuadalupe Sánchez; and Cristina Tobón

pp. 147-163


Abstract: The objective of this research aims to comparatively analyze the diagnostic accuracy of two social desirability detection scales that have been obtained from the 567 items that comprise the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2): Wiggins Wsd Scale and Edwards ESD Scale. The 583 participants (232 men and 351 women) were differentiated into two groups according to their way of answering: Honest response group (N = 310) who replied truthfully following the guidelines of MMPI-2, and simulated response group (N = 273) who were instructed to intentionally and consistently show a positive image of themselves. The results have shown a higher diagnostic accuracy and predictive power, although less reliability (Cronbach's α) for the Wiggins (Wsd) Scale than for Edwards (ESD).


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Norms in social representations: Two studies with French young drivers Norms in social representations: Two studies with French young drivers

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Date added: 07/01/2009
Date modified: 09/26/2013
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Sandrine Gaymard

pp. 165-181


Abstract: This paper deals with a representational and conditional approach regarding norms. In the framework of social representations, conditionality is linked to individual practices or behaviors. Taking a questionnaire based on conditional scenarios that permitted to articulate individual and group behaviors to the prescriptions of Highway Code, two studies manipulating instructions with samples of young drivers were designed. The first study confirmed that conditional transgressions declared through individual practices refer to what young drivers fell acceptable to contravene. In the second study, substitution instructions i.e., to answer at the scenario “to be well-seen by yours friends” or “to be badly-seen by yours friends”, and standard instructions (e.g., “response as you behave”), were administrated, using a scenario of speed limit, to study the influence of norms in subjects’ responses. A multiple regression analysis showed that the responses were mediated by normative models. In conclusion, the studies illustrated an important complementary aspect of road safety concerning the social perception of rules, the influence of normative models and theirs impacts on young driver behavior.


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Implication degree and delay on recall of events: An experimental and HDV study Implication degree and delay on recall of events: An experimental and HDV study

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Date added: 07/01/2009
Date modified: 09/26/2013
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Antonio L. ManzaneroSofián El-Astal; and Javier Aróztegui

pp. 183-203


Abstract: This paper has done an experiment to test the effect of both retention (immediate vs. delayed one week) and implication degree (neutral vs. involved perspectives) over accuracy and quality of a complex event memory. 56 subjects witnessed a traffic accident adopting the role of either an observer or one of the actors involved in the accident. Subsequently they were asked to describe what happened either immediately or a week later. Several variables on recall were measured. All statistically significant variables were globally analyzed through High Dimensional Visualization (HDV). The results show that from the perspective of codification and taking into consideration the different degrees of involvement, the accuracy of the statements affects only in the immediate recovery since the subjects who encode the incident from the perspective of one of the players involved in the accident appear to ignore the less relevant information from their own perspective providing more specific and organized statements, although also more emotional and autobiographical and with most self-references and personal comments. The HDV graph representing all significant variables show a clear distinction of memories due to subjects perspective.


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Homicide and domestic violence. Are there different psychological profiles mediated by previous violence exerted on the victim? Homicide and domestic violence. Are there different psychological profiles mediated by previous violence exerted on the victim?

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Date added: 07/01/2009
Date modified: 09/26/2013
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Miguel Ángel SoriaInmaculada ArmadansMª Rosa Viñas; andMonserrat Yepes

pp. 205-220


Abstract: A sample of 46 men was evaluated with the DAPP (Questionnaire of Domestic Aggressor Psychological Profile). All were inmates convicted for various degrees of violence against their wives in different prisons. The sample was divided into three groups: homicides without previous violence against their wives (H) (n=11), homicides with previous violence (VH) (n=9) and domestic batterers without previous homicide attempts against their partners (B) (n=26). The aim of the study was to analyze the possible existence of three different kinds of profiles and more specifically if it’s possible to obtain an independent profile for domestic homicides with previous episodes of violence against their wives. The results neither confirm the hypothesis as whole nor for the violent homicides. However, differences between groups were obtained in the admission and description of the facts, in the risk of future violence, in some sociodemographical characteristics (i.e., level of education, social status), in the couple relationship, in the dissatisfaction concerning the unachieved ideal woman, in the use of extreme physical force during the aggression, the time of the first aggression, the use of verbal threats during the aggression, explanation of the events to the family and the period of time between the beginning of the romantic relationship and the manifestation of violence. The implications of the results for the theoretical frameworks proposed and future research are discussed.


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Discriminating real victims from feigners of psychological injury in gender violence: Validating a protocol for forensic setting Discriminating real victims from feigners of psychological injury in gender violence: Validating a protocol for forensic setting

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Date added: 07/01/2009
Date modified: 09/26/2013
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Manuel VilariñoFrancisca Fariña; and Ramón Arce

pages 221-243


Abstract: Standard clinical assessment of psychological injury does not provide valid evidence in forensic settings, and screening of genuine from feigned complaints must be undertaken prior to the diagnosis of mental state (American Psychological Association, 2002). Whereas psychological injury is Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), a clinical diagnosis may encompass other nosologies (e.g., depression and anxiety). The assessment of psychological injury in forensic contexts requires a multimethod approach consisting of a psychometric measure and an interview. To assess the efficacy of the multimethod approach in discriminating real from false victims, 25 real victims of gender violence and 24 feigners were assessed using a the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), a recognition task; and a forensic clinical interview, a knowledge task. The results revealed that feigners reported more clinical symptoms on the SCL-90-R than real victims. Moreover, the feigning indicators on the SCL-90-R, GSI, PST, and PSDI were higher in feigners, but not sufficient to provide a screening test for invalidating feigning protocols. In contrast, real victims reported more clinical symptoms related to PTSD in the forensic clinical interview than feigners. Notwithstanding, in the forensic clinical interview feigners were able to feign PTSD which was not detected by the analysis of feigning strategies. The combination of both measures and their corresponding validity controls enabled the discrimination of real victims from feigners. Hence, a protocol for discriminating the psychological sequelae of real victims from feigners of gender violence is described.


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