Vol. 2, Issue 1, January 2010

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Editorial Editorial

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Treatment of drug addiction and psychopathology: A field study Treatment of drug addiction and psychopathology: A field study

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Manuel IsornaLuis Fernández-Ríos; and Antonio Souto

pp. 3-18


Abstract: Field study to assess the concurrence of the psychopathology of drug addiction, and to evaluate the efficacy of pharmacological treatment versus drug-free treatments for the psychopathology of drug addiction. A total of 261 patients treated for drug addiction, 131 on a drug-free treatment and the remaining 130 patients received a drug regime, of which 113 were, according to the Prochaska and Decrement’s Transtheorical Model, in a initial phase of the treatment (from 15 days to 6 months of treatment) and 148 in a maintenance phase in drug treatment (> 6 months), were psychopathologically assessed using the SCL-90-R (Derogatis, 2002). A field study with a 2 X 2 design (treatment: drug-free vs. drug-regime) and (treatment phase: initial phase vs. maintenance in drug treatment) was carried out. The results support the hypothesis of a dual diagnosis, that is, the comorbidity of psychopathology and drug addiction. On the whole, treatment for drug addiction had a significant impact on reducing associated psychopathology. Finally, the results are discussed in the light of the implications for the treatment of drug addiction.


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Prediction of cannabis and cocaine use in adolescence using decision trees and logistic regression Prediction of cannabis and cocaine use in adolescence using decision trees and logistic regression

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Elena Gervilla and Alfonso Palmer

pp. 19-35


Abstract: Alcohol is currently the most consumed substance among the Spanish adolescent population. Some of the variables that bear an influence on this consumption include ease of access, use of alcohol by friends and some personality factors. The aim of this study was to analyze and quantify the predictive value of these variables specifically on alcohol consumption in the adolescent population. The useful sample was made up of 6,145 adolescents (49.8% boys and 50.2% girls) with a mean age of 15.4 years (SE= 1.2). The data were analyzed using the statistical model for a count variable and Data Mining techniques. The results show the influence of ease of access, alcohol consumption by the group of friends, and certain personality factors on alcohol intake, allowing us to quantify the intensity of this influence according to age and gender. Knowing these factors is the starting point in elaborating specific preventive actions against alcohol consumption.


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Adolescent witnesses in cases of teen dating violence: An analysis of peer responses Adolescent witnesses in cases of teen dating violence: An analysis of peer responses

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Josefa RuizFrancisca Expósito; and Elena Bonache

pp. 37-53


Abstract: Gender violence is a serious problem that also affects the adolescent population (González & Santana, 2001). The victims of such violence in adolescence, should they seek help, rely primarily on their peers and rarely report it to adults (Weisz et al., 2007). The responses or reactions of avoidance, minimization or protection that their peers may have contribute to the victim maintaining or breaking the "unhealthy" relationship. An experimental study was designed to examine the reactions of adolescents in the event that they are witness to an episode of violence (verbal and physical aggression) towards a friend. The main objective was to analyze the differences in their reactions according to sex of the witness, familiarity with the perpetrator (stranger vs. a friend) and the relationship between aggressor and victim (a date, romantic partner.) An exploratory analysis of the influence of the witnesses’ sexist beliefs (hostile and benevolent) on these reactions was also performed. Thus, more negative reactions were found (greater passivity and less empathy) among men in the case where the victim maintained a relationship with the offender than in the case of a date, especially if the perpetrator was a stranger. Also, in the girls more avoidance responses were found when the violent episode occurred between members of a couple on a date. Finally, the practical implications of the findings are discussed, highlighting the need to include guidelines in programs against gender violence among adolescents on how to behave if in relation to the victim when they are witnesses of gender violence.


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New advances in the study of the conficence-accuracy relationship in the memory for events New advances in the study of the conficence-accuracy relationship in the memory for events

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Karlos Luna and Beatriz Martín-Luengo

pp. 55-71


Abstract: It has been suggested that calibration, and not correlation, could be a better analysis to examine the confidence-accuracy relationship. Calibration refers to the degree in which confidence ratings correspond with the objective probability that the answer is correct. However, to date calibration has been calculated only in a few studies that have addressed eyewitness identification, and never in the memory for events. For this reason, four experiments were conducted to examine the calibration between confidence and accuracy in the recognition and recall of a criminal situation. The basic procedure involved the presentation of a crime through slides or video, followed by a questionnaire. Confidence ratings were also required. Results showed in general a good confidence-accuracy calibration, with variations depending on the memory test and the variables manipulated. They also showed that participants are slightly overconfident, and that they do not calibrate confidence well in the low-medium levels of difficulty. The main conclusion of this research is that confidence could help to evaluate the accuracy of a testimony under certain circumstances, although generalising the results to real-life situations should be done with caution.


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Impression management strategies of deceivers and honest reporters in an investigative interview Impression management strategies of deceivers and honest reporters in an investigative interview

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Amber HinesKevin ColwellCheryl Hiscock-AnismanErika Garrett;Ryan Ansarra; and Larissa Montalvo

pp. 73-90


Abstract: Understanding the subjective experience of respondents attempting to convince an investigator will enhance our theoretical knowledge of deception and improve assessment techniques. Discrepancies between respondents’ understanding and actual credibility criteria are especially important. Sixty-six participants engaged in a small crime, and were interviewed following a week’s preparation. All were provided incentive for convincing the interviewer of the veracity of their statement. Thirty-two were honestly reporting the theft, and thirty-four were responding to avoid being found guilty. After a Reality Interview (a derivative of the Cognitive Interview), participants were asked to describe what was important in convincing the interviewer through open-ended and Likert-type questions. These strategies of impression management are presented here. The basic task of convincing appeared similar for both groups, with participants focused on providing clear and careful stories without contradictions rather than attempting to provide vivid and spontaneously-constructed statements. Deceivers attached more importance to: 1) preparing in advance, 2) monitoring and controlling information, and 3) maintaining eye contact. Honest respondents were more concerned with providing correct peripheral detail. Importantly, both groups were reporting much more similarity than difference, and the strategies described are not likely to succeed against verbal content analysis.


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