Vol.4, Issue 1, January 2012

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The effects of impulsiveness and alcohol abuse on traffic code violations The effects of impulsiveness and alcohol abuse on traffic code violations

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Beatriz González-Iglesias; José Antonio Gómez-Fraguela; Estrella Romero; and Jorge Sobral

pp. 1-16


Abstract: This paper examines the contribution of the facets assessed by the I7 Impulsiveness Questionnaire (viz., impulsiveness, venturesomeness and empathy), and of alcohol abuse, to the prediction of traffic rule violations controlling for the effect of variables such as age and annual mileage. To this end, a study was conducted on a sample of 535 drivers aged 20–73 years and the results were examined separately by gender. Based on them, impulsiveness and venturesomeness account for a substantial proportion of traffic violations reported by males and females, even if the effects of other variables such as age or annual mileage are considered. By contrast, empathy is relevant only for male drivers. The results also reveal a strong relationship between alcohol abuse and Highway Code violations, which significantly increases the predictive ability of personality variables in both males and females. These results support the need to consider the drivers’ personality in the design of interventions for driving offenders, whereas programs which are focused only on road safety education may be insufficient. Results also evidence the need to highlight the role in the intervention of alcohol abuse and its relationship with driving behaviours.


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Negative reactions of men to the loss of power in gender relations: Lilith vs. Eve Negative reactions of men to the loss of power in gender relations: Lilith vs. Eve

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M. Carmen Herrera; Francisca Expósito; and Miguel Moya

pp. 17-42


Abstract: This paper examines the reaction of the man when he sees he is losing power and authority over a woman and it relation with men’s sexist ideology. 83 men participated in the study and were led to believe they were interacting via computer with a woman, and answered a decision-making task about family relationships. All of them were assigned the role of someone with authority and power. In half the cases, the woman accepted the man's decisions, and, in the other half, she did not accept. The results showed that when woman did not accept the decisions of the man, she was perceived more negatively. Moreover, the more hostile sexist participants were, the more they rated negatively their female partner, especially when the woman did not accept their decisions. Hostile sexism acts as a corrective tool against those women who defy the traditionally higher status accorded to men. The valuation that woman receive in their interaction with man is determined by what man feel threatened. These results are of great interest in the field of gender violence, since it is one more step towards explaining why some men use violence to attempt to regain their threatened or lost power.


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The effects of presentation methods and semantic information on multi-ethnicity face recognition The effects of presentation methods and semantic information on multi-ethnicity face recognition

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Kristjan Kask and Kaarel Rundu

pp. 43-57


Abstract: Studies have shown that own-race faces are more accurately recognised than other-race faces. The present study examined the effects of own- and other-race face recognition when different ethnicity targets are presented to the participants together. Also the effect of semantic information on the recognition of different race faces was examined. The participants (N = 234) were presented with photos of own-race and other-race faces. For some participants the faces were presented with stereotypical names and for some not. As hypothesized, own-race faces were better recognised in target-present lineup and more correctly rejected in target-absent lineup than other-race faces. Concerning presentation method, both own-race and other-race faces were more correctly identified in target-present simultaneous than in target-present sequential lineups. No effects of stereotypical names on face recognition were found. The findings suggest that identifying multi-ethnicity perpetrators is a problematic and difficult task.


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The relationship of anger and cognitive distortions with violence in violent offenders’ population: a meta-analytic rewiew The relationship of anger and cognitive distortions with violence in violent offenders’ population: a meta-analytic rewiew

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Simona V. Chereji; Sebastian Pintea; and Daniel David

pp. 59-77


Abstract: In the present meta-analysis, the magnitude of the relationship between cognitive distortions and anger and violent behaviour of incarcerated offenders, based on selected data for the relationship between anger and violence, and cognitive distortions and violence was empirically assessed. Out of nineteen studies included for analysis nine of them contain statistical indicators regarding the relationship between anger and violence, and fourteen studies regarding cognitive distortions and violence. The results indicated a strong relationship both between anger and violence, and between cognitive distortions and violent behaviour. Furthermore, the moderating effect of the type of instruments (self-reported vs. observational behavioural measurements) used for violence assessment was tested. The results indicated that the type of instruments had no significant influence on the cognition-violence relationship, QB(1) = 0.12, p > .05, while in case of the anger-violence relationship, a significant moderating effect was identified, QB(1) = 14.26, p < .01, which supports a higher effect size when violence was measured by a self-reported than when was measured by behavioural observation.


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Speeding or not speeding? When subjective assessment of safe, pleasurable and risky speeds determine speeding behaviour Speeding or not speeding? When subjective assessment of safe, pleasurable and risky speeds determine speeding behaviour

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Florent Lheureux

pp. 79-98


Abstract: It is hypothesized that in a given situation speeding behaviour is determined by three subjective speed assessments: the speed perceived as the riskiest, the speed perceived as the safest, and the speed perceived as the most pleasurable. Specifically, if these assessments are high, drivers are expected to circulate faster. Such speed perceptions are also viewed as influenced by attitudes towards speed and speed limits. 177 car drivers, included 102 men and 75 women between 18 and 72 years (M = 43, SD = 21) and with a mean driving experience of 22 years (SD = 19), answered to a questionnaire about their attitudes towards speed and speed limits, the speeds they considered as the riskiest, the safest, and the most pleasurable in three different contexts, as well as their usual speed. Data analyses (ANOVA and path analyses) confirmed the influence of the three types of speed assessment on the usual speed and that the influence of attitudes on this behaviour is mediated by these three assessments. Results suggest that not only a change in attitudes and beliefs is desirable, but a concrete specification (e.g., 100 Km/h) of speeds perceived as safe, pleasurable and risky is also needed in order to reduce speeding behaviour.


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